ახალშენი ვენახის მოვლა

ახალშენი ვენახის მოვლა განსაკუთრებულ ყურადღებას მოითხოვს.

ვენახის გაშენების პირველ წელს ტარდება კოკოლების გაფხვიერება, სარეველების წინააღმდეგ ბრძოლა, ვაზის დაცვა სოკოვანი დაავადებისა და მავნებლებისგან.
ადრე გაზაფხულზე საჭიროა მწკრივთაშორისებში ნიადაგის კულტივატორით გაფხვიერება 10-12 სმ-ის სიგრძეზე, ხოლო მწკრივებში, კოკოლებს შორის დარჩენილი ადგილი დამუშავდება თოხის საშუალებით.

წვისმის შემდეგ, საჭიროების მიხედვით, კოკოლები უნდა გაფხვიერდეს და შესწორდეს. ტარდება სანამყენედან გამოტანილი ფესვების შეჭრა და საძირეზე ამონაყარი ყლორტების მოცილება (ივნისის II ნახევრიდან). ნამყენს ისე უნდა მიეყაროს ფხვიერი მიწა ისეთი რაოდენობით, რომ კოკოლის სიმაღლე პირველთან შედარებით შემცირდეს. ამ ღონისძიებას იმეორებენ 25-30 დღის შემდეგ. კოკოლის მესამედ გახსნის დროს მიწა აღარ მიეყრება, რადგან საჭიროა რქის ბაზალური ნაწილები მომწიფდეს.

საჭიროა ახალშენ ვენახში ნიადაგი ყოველთვის ფხვიერ მდგომარეობაში იყოს, რისთვისაც სავეგეტაციო პერიოდში 5-8-ჯერ ტარდება კულტივაცია, ამდენჯერვე საჭიროა მწკრივების გათოხვნა.

სათანადო ვეგეტატიური ნაზარდის განვითარების შემდეგ საჭიროა ყლორტების 2-3-ჯერ აკვრა ჭიგოზე:

ა) ახალშენ ვენახში ფორმირების დასაჩქარებლად საჭიროა დარგვის პირველ წელს ჩატარდეს ვაზზე ყლორტების დანორმება, ერთი-ორი უკეთესი ყლორტის დატოვებით და მათი საყრდენზე აღზრდით. ზრდა- განვითრების სიძლიერის მიხედვით, მეორე წლის ვაზი გაისხვლება შტამბის სიმაღლეზე ან შტამბისა და სანაყოფის გამოყვანა მოხდება ერთდროულად, შტამბის ზონაში ყლორტების შეცლით, ხოლო შედარებით სუსტი განვითარების ვაზი დაინეკება, ე,ი გაისხვლება ფუძის 2-3 კვირტზე.

მომდევნო წელს საჭირო იქნება ნიადაგის დამუშავება, ბრძოლა მავნებე-დაავადებათა წინააღმდეგ, მწვანე ოპერაციების ჩატარების წესები, გასხვლა ფორმირება, შპალერზე გადაყვანის შემდეგ ისეთივეა, სრულმოსავლიანი ვენახისა.

ბ) შპალერი უნდა მოეწყოს ვაზის გაშენების პირველ და მეორე წელს. მოგვიანებით შპალერის მოწყობა აგვიანებს ვაზის ფორმირებასა და მსხმოიარობაში შესვლას.

შპალერის მოსაწყობად საჭიროა: მავთული, ბოძები, ღუზის ქვა, მანჭვალი (ხის ბოძებისათვის). საყრდენად გამოიყენება როგორც ხის, ისე ლითონის და რკინა-ბეტონის ბოძები. რიგში ბოძებს შორის მანძილი შეიძლება იყოს 5-6-7 მეტრამდე.

ვაზის ზრდის სიძლიერის მიხედვით ეწყობა საშუალო და მაღალი შპალერი, როგორც წესი, საშუალო სიმაღლის შპალერი შედგება სამი წვერი მავთულისგან.

ვ. გოცირიძე, ა. გოდაბრელიძე.

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