სარწყავი სისტემები და ვენახის მორწყვის წესები

მორწყვის მიზანია ვაზის ზრდის გაძლიერება, მოსავლიანობის ზრდა და პროდუქციის ხარისხის გაუმჯობესება. დასავლეთ საქართველოში, სადაც საკმაო რაოდენობით ნალექი მოდის, ვაზის კულტურა არ განიცდის ტენის ნაკლებობას და მორწყვასაც არ საჭიროებს. აღმოსავლეთ საქართველოში, ქართლში და ნაწილობრივ კახეთში, ვაზი და ხეხილი მორწყვის გარეშე მოსავალს ან არ ძლევა, ან მოსავალი უხარისხოა. რწყვის რამდენიმე წესი არსებობს: კვალში მიშვებით, მოღვრით, დაწვიმებით, ნიადაგქვეშა და წვეთოვანი მორწყვა.

კვალში მიშვებით რწყვა

ეს წესი საქართველოში ძლიერ გავრცელებულია. ვაზის რიგებში ტრაქტორით, ან ცოცხალი გამწევი ძალით კეთდება კვალი. თუ რიგები ფართოა (3მ. და მეტი), მაშინ კეთდება ორი, ან სამი კვალი ერთ რიგში. კვალის სიმაღლე 12-20 სმ-ია, ხოლო სიგანე 30-40 სმ. კვლევის სიგრძე ემთხვევა რიგის სიგრძეს ან რამდენიმე რიგის სიგრძეს.

კვალში მიშვებით რწყვის დროს, წყალი ჟონავს ნიადაგის სიღრმეში 90-100 სმ-ზე. ნიადაგში, რომლის სიღრმე 60 სმ.-ია (ამ სიღრმეში მოქცეულია უფრო მეტად აქტიური ფესვების 65%), ნათელია, რომ ვაზი ასეთი რწყვის დროს საკმაო რაოდენობით  წყალს იღებს.

კვალში რწყვის ჩასატარებლად საჭიროა ვაზის რგვამდე, ნიადაგი წინასწარ  მოსწორდეს. ყოველი რწყვის შემდეგ უნდა ჩატარდეს ნიადაგის კულტივაცია, რათა  წყლის აორთქლება შემცირდეს.

მოღვრით რწყვა

მოღვრით, ანუ მიშვებით რწყვის დროს, სარწყავი წყლის თანაბრად განაწილება გაძნელებულია. მორწყვის შემდეგ ნიადაგის ზედაპირზე ქერქი წარმოიშობა, რომელიც ნიადაგის შეშრობისთანავე უნდა გაფხვიერდეს. მიშვებით მორწყვა აუარესებს ზედა ფენების სტრუქტურულ და აგრეგატულ შემადგენლობას. ზედაპირული მორწყვის ეს წესი უმჯობესია სანერგეში გამოსაყენებლად.

ზედაპირულ მორწყვას დაწვიმებით მორწყვასთან შედარებით ის უპირატესობა აქვს, რომ ამ დროს მინიმუმამდეა დაყვანილი ენერგეტიკული დანახარჯები და შემცირებულია წყლის ფიზიკური აორთქლება .

ზედაპირული, ანუ მიშვებით რწყვის წესის უარყოფითი მხარეებია: სარწყავ ფართობზე წყლის არათანაბარი განაწილება, ნიადაგის სტრუქტურის გაუარესება, მძიმე მექანიკურ შედგენილობის ნიადაგების გამკვრივება, აერაციის პროცესის შემცირება და გამოშრობის შედეგად ძლიერი ნაპრალების წარმოქმნა.

დაწვიმება

წყლის მიწოდების ერთ-ერთი საუკეთესო ხერხია. იგი გამოიყენება ყოველგვარი რელიეფის პირობებში. მის უპირატესობას წარმოადგენს ის, რომ გაიოლებულია მექანიზაციის გამოყენება, წყლის რეგულარული მიწოდება, ფართობზე თანაბარი განაწილება, ჰაერის შეფარდებით ტენიანობის გაზრდა. დაწვიმებით მორწყვა მოითხოვს საკმაოდ დიდ დანახაჯებს სისტემის დასანერგად. დაწვიმებით მორწყვას შეიძლება ხელი შეუშალოს ძლიერმა ქარებმა.

ნიადაგქვეშა მორწყვა

ეს სისტემა ეწყობა პლანტაჟის სიღრმეზე, გარკვეული დიამეტრის წინასწარ დაჩვრეტილი პლასტმასის მილებით, რომელიც მიერთებულია წყალმომარაგების სისტემასთან. ამ სიღრმეზე ჩაწყობილი სარწყავი სისტემა მცენარეს სრულად უზრუნელყოფს წყლით. ნიადაგქვეშა მორწყვა საშუალებას გვაძლევს ნიადაგის ზედა ფენებს შევუნარჩუნოთ სტრუქტურული მდგომარეობა და ოპტიმალური ტენიანობა, შევამციროთ დანახარჯები, როგორც  ზედაპირის მოსწორებაზე, ისე მორწყვაზე, ამასთან მაქსიმალურად გამოვიყენოთ მექანიზაცია. ეს სისტემა პერსპექტიულია კარგი ფიზიკური თვისებებისა და ტენიან ნიადაგებზე გაშენებულ ვენახებში და სანერგეში.

წვეთოვანი მორწყვა

თანამედროვე სარწყავ სისტემებს შორის წვეთოვანი მორწყვა ყველაზე რაციონალურია. ვაზის ძირებზე ან შტამბის სიმაღლეზე (პირველი მავთულის გასწვრივ) ეწყობა პლასტმასის გარკვეული დიამეტრის მილები, რომელთაც აქვთ ყოველ ვაზის ბუჩქთან საწვეთურები. წყლის მიწოდება რეგულირდება საწვეთურიდან დაწვეთების ინტენსივობის ზრდით.

ამ წესის უპირატესობა მდგომარეობს დატენიანების უწყვეტობაში, წყლის ეკონომიურ ხარჯვასა და სრულ ავტომატიზაციაში. სისტემის გამართულად მუშაობისთვის აუცილებელია წყლის სისუფთავე.

მორწყვის ვადების და ნორმების განსაზღვრა

რწყვის ნორმები, ვადები და რწყვის ჯერადობა დამოკიდებულია ნიადაგსა და კლიმატზე, ვაზის ჯიშსა და სიმწიფის დროზე. ვენახში ნიადაგის მორწყვა უნდა დაიწყოს მაისში, როდესაც ფესვთა სისტემის განვითარების ძირითად ფენაში ტენის საშუალო შემცველობა შემცირდება მცენარეში წყლის შეთვისების ზღვრამდე (კაპილარებში წყლის კავშირის შეწყვეტამდე) და უნდა გაგრძელდეს მანამ, სანამ აღნიშნულ ფენაში წყლის შემცველობა არ მიაღწევს საველე, ზღვრულ სტანდარტებს. წყლის რეგულირებისთვის აუცილებლად უნდა განისაზღვროს აქტიური ფენის საველე ზღვრული ტენტევადობა., ე.ი. მორწყვის ზედა ზღვარი. მორწყვის ქვედა ზღვარი (მორწყვის დაწყების მომენტამდე) საველე ზღვრული ტენტევადობის 80%-ს შეადგენს. ერთი და იმავე ტიპის ნიადაგში საველე ზღვრული ტენტევადობა და ვენახში წყლის შესვლის შენელების ზღვარი მექანიკური შემადგენლობისა და მათში ჰუმუსის შემცველობის მიხედვით იცვლება .

ვენახის რწყვის დაწყების ვადის დადგენის მიზნით ნიადაგის ტენის განსაზღვრის წონით მეთოდს იყენებენ.

მორწყვის ნორმა გულისხმობს წყლის იმ რაოდენობას, რომელიც იხარჯება ყოველი რწყვის დროს. ეს ნორმა  მნიშვნელოვნად მერყეობს. აუცილებელია, რომ სიმწიფის დასაწყისში ნიადაგის ის ფენა, სადაც ფესვებია განლაგებული, კარგად იყოს დატენიანებული. რწყვის ნორმას ადგენენ ცალ-ცალკე, ყველა ტიპის ნიადაგებისთვის. ნიადაგური თვისებებიდან გამომდინარე, 1 ჰექტარი ფართობის მორწყვის ნორმა (წყლის ხარჯი ერთჯერადი მორწყვის დროს) 500-1000 მ3-ის ფარგლებში მერყეობს და იანგრიშება ფორმულით:

M=h·w1-w2dv. 100, სადაც:

M — არის მორწყვის ნორმა მ2/ჰა;

h — ნიადაგის ფენის სისქე, მ-ში;

w 1 — საველე ზღვრული ტენიანობა %-ში;

W2 — აბსოლუტური ტენიანობა %-ში;

dv — ნიადაგის მოცულობითი მიწა მ/სმ3;

100 — ჰექტარზე გასაანგარიშებელი კოეფიციენტი.

მაგალითად M=h=0,6; w1=30; w220; dv =1,20, მაშინ M =0,6 (30-20) · 1,20 ·100 = 720 მ3/ჰა. ნიადაგიდან წყლის ხარჯვა დამოკიდებულია: ნიადაგის მექანიკურ შემადგენლობაზე, აქტიური ფენის სისქესა და მასში ჰუმუსის შემცველობაზე, კლიმატურ პირობებზე, მცენარეთა ასაკზე, სავეგეტაციო ფაზებზე, ვაზის ჯიშზე, ნიადაგის მოვლისა და მორწყვის წესებზე.

დიდი სისქის, მძიმე მექანიკური შემადგენლობისა და ჰუმუსით მდიდარი ნიადაგების მორწყვის ნორმა შედარებით დიდია, ხოლო მორწყვათა რაოდენობა კი — მცირე. ამ კანონზომიერების შებრუნებულ სურათს გვაძლევს მცირე სისქის მსუბუქი, მექანიკური შემადგენლობისა და ჰუმუსის მცირე შემადგენლობის ნიადაგები.

ვენახის მორწყვა 

მორწყვის ვადები ისე უნდა შეირჩეს, რომ უზრუნველყოფილი იყოს ვაზის ბუჩქების საუკეთესო განვითარება. მორწყვის ვადები დიდ ფარგლებში მერყეობს. იგი დამოკიდებულია მევენახეობის რეგიონების თავისებურებაზე, ჯიშებზე, მოსული ნალექების და მორწყვის წესზე. სარწყავი მევენახეობის პრაქტიკაში მიღებულია მორწყვის ვადები განისაზღვროს ვენახის ნიადაგის ტენის მარაგის შეფასებით. ამისთვის გამოყოფილ ტიპურ ნაკვეთზე, 1,0-1,5 მეტრ ფენაში, სავეგეტაციო პერიოდში, დეკადაში ერთხელ საზღვრავენ ტენიანობას. ტენიანობის მაჩვენებლებს იყენებენ რწყვის ნორმის დასადგენად. რწყვის ვადის განსაზღვრისათვის იყენებენ აგრეთვე ფოთლის ისეთ ფიზიოლოგიურ მაჩვენებლებს, როგორიც არის შემწოვი ძალა და უჯრედის წვენის კონცენტრაცია. საქართველოში სარწყავ რეგიონებში პირველი რწყვა ტარდება მაისში, მეორე ივნისში, მარცვლების ინტენსიური ზრდის ფაზაში. რწყვა უნდა შეწყდეს ყურძნის კრეფის წინ 3-4 კვირით ადრე.

წვეთოვანი რწყვის დროს რწყვა ტარდება ყოველ დეკადაში, შემცირებული ნორმით — 80-120 მ3/ჰექტარზე. ამ სისტემით რწყვას წყვეტენ მარცვლების შერბილებისთანავე (შეთვალების დროს).

რწყვის ვადები კორექტირდება მოსული ნალექების და ნიადაგის ტენიანობის გათვალისწინებით.

ვ. გოცირიძე, ა. გოდაბრელიძე, სოფლის მეურნეობის მეცნიერებათა დოქტორები

ჟურნალი „ახალი აგრარული საქართველო“ №14„

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